In particle physics searches (and elsewhere) the word “significance” is associated with the quantitative measure of how discrepant is one observation with a so-called “null hypothesis”. That is, one searches for a new effect in some dataset, and defines what one expects to see in the absence of anything discrepant from theoretical predictions: that is the null hypothesis. A new particle in the data will usually manifest itself as an excess of events, and this will cause the data to deviate from expectations.


read more

via Science 2.0 Read More…