Researchers  have been studying toll-receptors for decades, revealing functions in immune defence developmental biology. Now, a research team from Kiel University says reporting that toll-receptors have primarily served to identify germs and to control bacterial colonization of organisms – typical immune defense functions. 

Toll receptors exist in many animal species as well as humans. Cnidarians are convenient research subjects because they live in plain aquaria, have a simple genome and can be examined easily in experiments. They also live in association with few types of bacteria compared to humans.


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