Although we know that humans have had a significant impact on the environment and the species that dwell within it, we don’t always have detailed information on when our influence was first felt, or how the effects of our activities interact with those caused by other types of perturbation. As a result, it can be difficult to establish goals associated with conservation and management efforts. For instance, if we are trying to return an ecosystem to a pre-disturbance baseline, how do we know what that baseline actually is?



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