In a perfect world, communicating animals would always
be capable of hearing each other’s signals and responding
appropriately. In the real world, however, the environment is
filled with interfering sounds such wind, rainfall, other species’
vocalizations, and, increasingly, anthropogenic noise. Under these
conditions, lucky animals may be able to respond to a signal when they
should, and avoid responding when they shouldn’t. However, some
individuals might accidentally miss out on hearing an important signal,
or react to one that hasn’t even been given.



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