This is a post about basics. That’s because I think a point needs to be made which is surprisingly not as well-known as its elementary nature would have you guess.

Correlation is a measure of how two quantities can be observed to be in linear dependence on one another. It is a very common quantity to report the results of scientific studies, particularly but not exclusively in the social sciences. Researchers try to evidence the presence of a correlation between two phenomena as a preliminary step to investigating whether one can be the cause of the other.
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